Archive for the ‘Dark Snow Project’ Category

fire, ice, soot, carbon: Dark Snow Project 2014 final field work in Greenland

Friday, August 1st, 2014

Arrived yesterday to Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland, now 6 AM, we’re just about out the door in effort to put more numbers on how fire and other factors are affecting Greenland’s reflectivity as part of the Dark Snow Project. 

I just received this 27 July, 2014 NASA MODIS satellite image showing wildfire smoke drifting over Greenland ice. 

Premier climate video blogger Peter Sinclair is a key component of the Dark Snow Project because of our focus on communicating our science to the global audience. The video below was shot and edited last night quickly as we prepare for a return to our camp a few hours from now. 

The video does not comment on the important issue of carbon. So, here’s a quick research wrap-up… Wildfire is a source of carbon dioxide, methane and black carbon to the atmosphere. Jacobson (2014) find that sourcing to be underestimated in earlier work. Graven et al. (2013) find northern forests absorbing and releasing more carbon by respiration due to Arctic warming’s effects on forest composition change. At the global scale, the land environment produces a net sink of carbon, taking up some 10% of the atmospheric carbon emissions due to fossil fuel combustion (IPCC, 2007). Yet, whether northern wildfire is becoming an important source of atmospheric carbon (whether from CO2 or CH4 methane) remains under investigation. University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers find:

“fires shift the carbon balance in multiple ways. Burning organic matter quickly releases large amounts of carbon dioxide. After a fire, loss of the forest canopy can allow more sun to reach and warm the ground, which may speed decomposition and carbon dioxide emission from the soil. If the soil warms enough to melt underlying permafrost, even more stored carbon may be unleashed.

“Historically, scientists believe the boreal forest has acted as a carbon sink, absorbing more atmospheric carbon dioxide than it releases, Gower says. Their model now suggests that, over recent decades, the forest has become a smaller sink and may actually be shifting toward becoming a carbon source.

“The soil is the major source, the plants are the major sink, and how those two interplay over the life of a stand really determines whether the boreal forest is a sink or a source of carbon

Works Cited
  • Danish Meterological Institute provided the NASA MODIS satellite image
  • Graven, H.D., R. F. Keeling, S. C. Piper, P. K. Patra, B. B. Stephens, S. C. Wofsy, L. R. Welp, C. Sweeney, P.P. Tans, J.J. Kelley, B.C. Daube, E.A. Kort, G.W. Santoni, J.D. Bent, 2013, Enhanced Seasonal Exchange of CO2 by Northern Ecosystems Since 1960,  Science: Vol. 341 no. 6150 pp. 1085-1089, DOI: 10.1126/science.1239207
  • Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
  • Jacobson, M. Z., 2014, Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD021861.

Quebec fires in NASA CALIPSO data, drifting to Greenland

Sunday, July 21st, 2013

On the lower limit of this 4 July NASA CALIPSO laser scan, between latitude 42.60 N, longitude -68.93 W, evident is a rising smoke plume. The plume seeds cloud formation toward Greenland, reaching the southwest of the island.

The orange areas are smoke aerosols.

On 12 July, when Dark Snow scientist McKenzie Skiles, after camping, was picked up along Greenland’s longest road for a ride back to town, without prompt the driver remarked on haze in the sky from Canadian fires. McKenzie Skiles “It was the first thing he said after I got in the car, as if apologizing for the haze in the air (which was noticeable).”

hazy Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Photo McKenzie Skiles

9 July, 2013, we gathered snow and ice core samples from the surface and down through the 2012 melt layer, and we left only footprints. We’ll eventually see how much soot the laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements tell us is there.

Greenland – an albedo feedback laboratory

Sunday, June 30th, 2013

Surface reflectivity of sunlight is called “albedo”. Albedo is a Latin-based word referring to whiteness. The higher the albedo, the more sunlight can be reflected. As albedo decreases, more sunlight can be absorbed.

Snow and ice impurities concentrate in “cryoconite” holes on the Greenland ice sheet surface. Photo. J. Box

The absorption of sunlight is the largest single source of melt energy on the Greenland ice sheet.

Surface albedo across Greenland is mapped using data from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-borne sensors. Before melting is underway, albedo is above 80%.

The NASA albedo data have an accuracy better than 5% (Stroeve et al. 2006; Box et al. 2012).

During melting, the rounding of ice crystals by heating causes the albedo to drop.
A freshly fallen snow crystal has numerous facets to reflect sunlight (left). Warming causes the grains to round at the edges and clump together (right). Scanning electron microscope photos courtesy the Electron and Confocal Microscopy Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service.
In some areas of the ice sheet, by the time winter snow cover melt away, bare glacier ice is exposed. Where impurities congregate, the surface albedo drops below 30%.
Aerial oblique view of the lower elevations of the ice sheet in August 2005 from an area near the point of lowest reflectivity on the ice sheet. Photo J. Box

Impurities are composed of dust, algae, wildfire soot. Their relative importance to surface albedo remains incompletely understood.

As part of Dark Snow Project’s 2013 expedition, Dr. Marek Stibal gathers samples from an area of concentration near the darkest point on the Western Greenland ice sheet.

An increase in atmospheric heating of Greenland ice is a driver of Greenland ice albedo decline in summer, in part due to the expansion of bare ice areas, in part due to the heating effect on rounding ice crystals, and in part if the concentration of impurities increases.

In the period of high quality observations beginning early 2000, June 2013 albedo for the ice sheet is ranked 3rd lowest.

Greenland albedo started out very low in 2013 due to a snow drought exposing darker bare ice around the ice sheet periphery.

The albedo feedback with climate is responsible for doubling the temperature changes when climate warms or cools. This amplifier helps Earth’s climate system swing into and out of ice ages. The feedback is complex, including the effects of heating and light absorbing impurities, in a process that compounds through time.

Light absorbing impurities like black carbon from wildfire and industrial sources acts like a multiplier of the albedo feedback.

The Dark Snow Project aims to better understand the black carbon aspect of the albedo feedback through field data gathering and laboratory analysis.

 

Click here to visit the Dark Snow Youtube Channel.

Works Cited

  1. Box, J. E., X. Fettweis, J.C. Stroeve, M. Tedesco, D.K. Hall, and K. Steffen: Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers, The Cryosphere, 6, 821-839, doi:10.5194/tc-6-821-2012, 2012. open access
  2. Stroeve, J.C., Box, J.E., Haran, T., 2006: Evaluation of the MODIS (MOD10A1) daily snow albedo product over the Greenland ice sheet, Remote Sensing of Environment, 105(2), 155-171.
  3. Stibal, M. M. Šabacká, and J. Žárský, Biological processes on glacier and ice sheet surfaces, Nature Geoscience 5, 771–774, 2012, doi:10.1038/ngeo1611

Dark Snow Project – stuck in an idyllic place after bagging our first set of samples

Saturday, June 29th, 2013

As we landed in Greenland 24 June at the beginning of Dark Snow Project, the best laid plans lept out of reach.

Our helicopter was grounded by red tape.

Reacting, several phone calls produced a single flight with a different company. So, Dark Snow Project generated some field data already 25 June and we have another 12 days to work out a way to get back onto the ice sheet to gather more snow and ice samples to document the impact of light absorbing impurities on enhanced ice sheet solar heating.

“I never worked on a meticulously planned ambitious project that didn’t turn into an improvised as-you-go masterpiece.” – Dark Snow Project patron

Dr. Marek Stibal gathers “sediment” from an area of concentration near the darkest point on the Western Greenland ice sheet

Now, awaiting paperwork to push through Danish authorities [Don't hold your breath. The Dane's put a work firewall around their weekends], we are using our time productively, collaborating with journalists and scientists.

Our a little blue house, where Dark Snow Project incubates its latest ideas

Peter Sinclair, Sara Penrhyn Jones, and I are gaining momentum editing video. We’ll be filling our You Tube Channel in the coming days.

Follow our Facebook Page and our tweets.

More soon.

Earth Day ice sculpture debrief

Monday, April 22nd, 2013

Earth Day Sunday 21 April temperatures were not high (max 57 F, 14 C) despite full sun all day. I was down to a T-shirt for 1/10th the day.

While we were not permitted to use black carbon, the erosion of the ice sculpture by the sunlight and dark grey chalk we were sprinkling on it exceeded my expectations.

While we were not permitted to use black carbon, the erosion of the ice sculpture by the sunlight and dark grey chalk we were sprinkling on it exceeded my expectations.

We were working the crowd, having one-on-one (or two) conversations and getting $5-$20 pledges from half of the folk, entirely within reason. It was interesting to see some folks’ interest change to vacancy once the description turned to an ask for $. It was exhausting giving the “elevator pitch” over and over and over. It was hard to not let rejection get to you, especially as the day wore on and the fatigue grew. My favorite pseudo-rejection experience was pitching to three very wealthy looking foreigners, really nice clothing, accessories; they listened with apparent interest and when I asked for $ support, they nodded… I got five dollars.

What did not happen and I cannot be surprised is some wealthy person pledging $1000 or so. We had I think two $100 donations another two $50 pledges but I think these were from friends. What I learned from this was it’s hard work getting donations using the “elevator pitch” on the street to innocent bystanders. Who likes getting asked for money by a stranger?

For the day, we netted ~$1200, in line with my expectations. The mGive text donation may add up to more but I doubt another $1200. We spent far more on the installation and yet more of the investment was time. I’m not discouraged because I would not be surprised that the visibility from this event evolves into more support as time goes on.

I guess at least 5000 people stopped and looked at the sculpture. Many of them took photos and I hope that they shared those with their social network. Thus, the Dark Snow Brand gains traction.

I think we had no doubt the most interesting installation at the Earth Day event, also what people told us. The green car show next to us was a formidable competitor.

Have an ice Earth Day!

Saturday, April 20th, 2013

Laying awake at 4 AM in a New York City hotel thinking on tomorrow’s Earth Day, and its theme: sea level rise. We’re installing a 4 ton ice sculpture at Union Square. Its characters #DARKSNOW sprawl 40 feet. It’s height is the sea level rise reasonable to expect this century, 5 feet (1.5 m). It’s to be sprinkled with soot symbolizing the effects of increasing wildfire and industrial pollution.

The sculpture was produced at cost by Stan (The Ice Man) from upstate New York. He is one of now dozens of people spending their free time to contribute to this Earth Day something of memory, something to inspire, and this is a fundraiser for a Greenland expedition I’m organizing for this June.

We aim to sample Greenland’s ice in key areas to measure how much of the record 2012 melt is attributable to wildfire soot absorbing more sunlight, multiplying the effect of warming.

I had worked the previous years publishing an article, live June 2012, just prior to this “surprising” melt. Well, the 100% surface melting wasn’t that surprising because as the paper predicted warmth had only to remain at the 2010 or 2011 level… “Thus, it is reasonable to expect 100% melt area over the ice sheet within another similar decade of warming”

June 2012 was already emblazoned in my memory, the fires of my home state were at record level. I had been focused on the effects of heat driving melt.  But now, the soot factor had to be incorporated into the calculation, adding another layer of precision and complexity.

An intermediate step was to examine atmospheric laser scans from NASA’s CALIPSO satellite. That search quickly revealed smoke clouds drifting over and apparently in contact with the ice sheet surface.

The ice sculpture work is by Stan the Ice Man. That's me Jason Box in the lower right advertising the stickers that supports get with a $25 donation at http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/dark-snow-project/ and at the Earth Day event. The ancient Greenlandic-inspired glacier glasses are going to donors at the NY event who give at the $400 level. The glasses are also available at http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/dark-snow-project/ but are discounted for the Earth Day event.

The ice sculpture is a metaphor for the connection between human agency, ice and climate, linked with sea level rise, fire and ice.  The sculpture is instead of another chart or table of data or thousand page scientific assessment.

The underlying message is the need to work toward harmony between humans and the environment upon which we depend.

To make the Greenland expedition happen, to move the science forward together, we’re asking you in the US to “Txt DARKSNOW to 50555 to pledge $10. Supporters will get a response asking to share that they have pitched in, to their social network. With just another few clicks, the fund raising can have some virality.

Or consider giving through our web site.

Incidentally, I had to go back and make corrections…The voice recognition I increasingly use in lieu of typing translates Earth Day as “birthday”. And why not celebrate the Earth’s birthday?

Have an ice Earth Day!

 

icy contenders weigh in

Sunday, January 27th, 2013

Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013)[i] suggest that the Greenland ice sheet was more stable than previously thought[ii], enduring ~6k years of temperatures 5-8 C above the most recent 1000 years during the Eemian interglacial 118-126k years before present, its loss at the time contributing an estimated 2 m (6.6 ft) of global sea level compared to a total of 4-8 m (13-26 ft)[iii], implying Antarctica was and will become the dominant source of sea level change. Consequently, environmental journalist Andrew Revkin writes: “The dramatic surface melting [in Greenland], while important to track and understand has little policy significance.”

Given the non-trivial complexity of the issue and that Greenland has been contributing more than 2:1 that of Antarctica to global sea level in the recent 19 years (1992-2010)[iv], let’s not consider Greenland of neglible policy relevance until that ratio is 1:1 if not reversed, say, 0.5:1. Greenland, currently the leading contender with surface melting dominating its mass budget[v], the positive feedback with surface melting and ice reflectivity doubling Greenland’s surface melt since year 2000[vi]. Professor Richard Alley weighs in again: “We have high confidence that warming will shrink Greenland, by enough to matter a lot to coastal planners.”

That’s not to say that Antarctica couldn’t take over from Greenland the position of number 1 global sea level contributor in the foreseeable future. Nor should one be surprised if it did, given that Antarctica contains a factor of 10 more ice than Greenland[vii],[viii].  And it is probable that the planetary energy imbalance[ix] caused by elevated greenhouse gasses, expressed primarily through massive oceanic heat uptake[x], is delivering enough erosive power to destabilize the 3.3 m of sea level[xi] in the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet. Yet, for today, consider also that climate change if increasing Antarctic precipitation a few percent can tip its mass balance toward the positive, lessening its sea level contribution[xii] even while its glaciers retreat.

Irrespective of sea level forcing, through its ice mass budget Greenland plays an important role to North Atlantic climate through ocean thermohaline circulation, even being suggested as the Achilles heel of the global climate system[xiii]. I wouldn’t tell our European friends Greenland’s hardly policy-relevant when climate change offers higher amplitude extremes in precipitation if not also temperature, as North Atlantic climate shifts in partial response to changes in neighboring Greenland.

Key differences between the modern Anthropocene and the Eemian interglacial suggest anthropogenic climate change may drive a different cryosphere response than during the Eemian…

Today, greenhouse gas concentrations are rising beyond 120% to 250% of peak Eemian values[xiv],[xv], driving today’s global warming and the aformentioned ocean heat content uptake that contrasts from the Eemian when warming was driven by northern latitudes receiving 30-50 Watts per sq. meter more solar energy, a more regionally-forced climate change. Anthropocene climate is forced an estimated 4/5 by by elevated greenhouse gasses and black carbon aerosols[xvi], the latter rising recently in significance after being more completely bounded[xvii]. Anthropogenic warming is clearly overwhelming the modern orbital cooling[xviii] and the decrease in solar output since the late 1970s[xix].

Because the Greenland ice sheet surface undergoes much more seasonal melting than the surface of the Antarctic ice sheet, in Greenland decanting a factor of 2 increase of meltwater runoff annually since 2000[xx], anthropogenic sources of light absorbing impurities provide a mechanism to multiply the cryospheric albedo feedback in ways presumably not occurring during the Eemian. Today, the combination of a.) land clearing by humans using fire, b.) industrial soot from fossil fuel combustion, and perhaps c.) larger fires the a legacy of fire suppression are in contrast to Eemian wildfire, that (as far as we know) did not include human factors. All me to here plug Dark Snow Project[xxi] that is currently soliciting donations to crowdfund a field and laboratory campaign designed to assess the impact of increasing wildfire on darkening the Greenland ice sheet.

Richard Alley: “While Antarctica is relatively unknown, Greenland is relatively known and therefore useful to guide policy even if the ice sheet becomes second most important to sea level, and to provide guidance to Antarctic colleagues [in surface melt studies]”

In the end, what matters to our concerns about the rate of sea level rise is the sum total volume change of all land ice. As long as glaciers and ice caps (GICs) (excluding the ice sheets) remain significant contenders (GICs lost mass at a rate of 148 ± 30 Gt per year from January 2003 to December 2010)[xxii], Antarctica lost 40% less during this period than GICs, and Greenland lost more than the two combined, we should stay focused on understanding the dynamics of all crysopheric systems in relation to the serious perturbation imposed by human activity. The Eemian has its own limits of utility in informing humanity of the trajectory we’re on.

Works Cited



[i] Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, D. Dahl-Jensen, M.R. Albert, A. Aldahan, N. Azuma, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. Baumgartner, A. Berggren, M. Bigler, T. Binder, T. Blunier, J.C. Bourgeois, E.J. Brook, S.L. Buchardt, C. Buizert, E. Capron, J. Chappellaz, J. Chung, H.B. Clausen, I. Cvijanovic, S.M. Davies, P. Ditlevsen, O. Eicher, H. Fischer, D.A. Fisher, L.G. Fleet, G. Gfeller, V. Gkinis, S. Gogineni, K. Goto-Azuma, A. Grinsted, H. Gudlaugsdottir, M. Guillevic, S.B. Hansen, M. Hansson, M. Hirabayashi, S. Hong, S.D. Hur, P. Huybrechts, C.S. Hvidberg, Y. Iizuka, T. Jenk, S.J. Johnsen, T.R. Jones, J. Jouzel, N.B. Karlsson, K. Kawamura, K. Keegan, E. Kettner, S. Kipfstuhl, H.A. Kjær, M. Koutnik, T. Kuramoto, P. Köhler, T. Laepple, A. Landais, P.L. Langen, L.B. Larsen, D. Leuenberger, M. Leuenberger, C. Leuschen, J. Li, V. Lipenkov, P. Martinerie, O.J. Maselli, V. Masson-Delmotte, J.R. McConnell, H. Miller, O. Mini, A. Miyamoto, M. Montagnat-Rentier, R. Mulvaney, R. Muscheler, A.J. Orsi, J. Paden, C. Panton, F. Pattyn, J. Petit, K. Pol, T. Popp, G. Possnert, F. Prié, M. Prokopiou, A. Quiquet, S.O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, J. Ren, C. Reutenauer, C. Ritz, T. Röckmann, J.L. Rosen, M. Rubino, O. Rybak, D. Samyn, C.J. Sapart, A. Schilt, A.M.Z. Schmidt, J. Schwander, S. Schüpbach, I. Seierstad, J.P. Severinghaus, S. Sheldon, S.B. Simonsen, J. Sjolte, A.M. Solgaard, T. Sowers, P. Sperlich, H.C. Steen-Larsen, K. Steffen, J.P. Steffensen, D. Steinhage, T.F. Stocker, C. Stowasser, A.S. Sturevik, W.T. Sturges, A. Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. Svensson, J. Tison, J. Uetake, P. Vallelonga, R.S.W. van de Wal, G. van der Wel, B.H. Vaughn, B. Vinther, E. Waddington, A. Wegner, I. Weikusat, J.W.C. White, F. Wilhelms, M. Winstrup, E. Witrant, E.W. Wolff, C. Xiao, and J. Zheng, Nature, vol. 493, pp. 489-494, 2013.

[ii] Substantial contribution to sea-level rise during the last interglacial from the Greenland ice sheet, Kurt M. Cuffey* & Shawn J. Marshall, Nature 404, 591-594 (6 April 2000) | doi:10.1038/35007053

[iii] Kopp, R. E., Simons, F. J., Mitrovica, J. X., Maloof, A. C. & Oppenheimer, M. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage. Nature 462, 863–867 (2009). & Dutton, A. & Lambeck, K. Ice volume and sea level during the last interglacial. Science 337, 216–219 (2012).

[iv]A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance, Andrew Shepherd, Erik R. Ivins, Geruo A, Valentina R. Barletta, Mike J. Bentley,Srinivas Bettadpur, Kate H. Briggs, David H. Bromwich, René Forsberg, Natalia Galin,Martin Horwath, Stan Jacobs, Ian Joughin, Matt A. King, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Jilu Li,Stefan R. M. Ligtenberg, Adrian Luckman, Scott B. Luthcke, Malcolm McMillan, Rakia Meister,Glenn Milne, Jeremie Mouginot, Alan Muir, Julien P. Nicolas, John Paden, Antony J. Payne,Hamish Pritchard, Eric Rignot, Helmut Rott, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Ted A. Scambos,Bernd Scheuchl, Ernst J. O. Schrama, Ben Smith, Aud V. Sundal, Jan H. van Angelen,Willem J. van de Berg, Michiel R. van den Broeke, David G. Vaughan, Isabella Velicogna,John Wahr, Pippa L. Whitehouse, Duncan J. Wingham, Donghui Yi, Duncan Young, H. Jay Zwally, , Science, 338 (6111) 1183-1189, DOI: 10.1126/science.1228102,

[v] Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss, van den Broeke, M. R., J. Bamber, J. Ettema, E. Rignot, E. Schrama, W. J. van de Berg, E. van Meijgaard, I. Velicogna and B. Wouters, 2009: Science, 326, 984-986.

[vi]  Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers, Box, J. E., Fettweis, X., Stroeve, J. C., Tedesco, M., Hall, D. K., and Steffen, K., The Cryosphere, 6, 821-839, doi:10.5194/tc-6-821-2012, 2012. open access

[vii] BEDMAP: A new ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica, Lythe, M.B., D.G. Vaughan, and the BEDMAP Group, 2001:  J. Geophys. Res., 106(B6), 11335–11351.

[viii] A new ice thickness and bedrock data set for the Greenland ice sheet, 1, Measurement, data reduction, and errors, Bamber, J. L., R. L. Layberry, S. P. Gogineni, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 33773-33780, 2001.

[ix] Earth’s Energy Imbalance and Implications, James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha, Karina Von Schuckmann, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2011), Volume: 11, Issue: 24, Pages: 39

[x] Global ocean heat content 1955–2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems, Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, H. E. Garcia, and A. V. Mishonov, 2009:, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155.

[xi] Reassessment of the Potential Sea-Level Rise from a Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Jonathan L. Bamber, Riccardo E. M. Riva, Bert L. A. Vermeersen, Anne M. LeBrocq, Science 15 May 2009: Vol. 324 no. 5929 pp. 901-903 DOI: 10.1126/science.1169335

[xii] Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise, Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna, SCIENCE, 308, 24 JUNE 2005

[xiii] Thermohaline Circulation, the Achilles Heel of Our Climate System: Will Man-Made CO2 Upset the Current Balance? Wallace S. Broecker, SCIENCE, 278, 28 NOVEMBER 1997

[xiv] Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ,Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M,. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.), IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[xv] Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations, Blasing, T.J., DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.032 http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html

[xvi] Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ,Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M,. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.), IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[xvii] Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren and C. S. Zender, Accepted manuscript online: 15 JAN 2013 07:30AM EST | DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50171

[xviii] Modeling the Climatic Response to Orbital Variations, J Imbrie, J Z Imbrie (1980). Science 207(4434): 943–953. doi:10.1126/science.207.4434.943.

[xx] after Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR Fettweis, Xavier; Franco, Bruno; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.; Lenaerts, J.; van den Broeke, M.; Gallée, H. in Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2012), 6

[xxii] Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise, Thomas Jacob, John Wahr, W. Tad Pfeffer & Sean Swenson, Nature 482, 514–518 (23 February 2012) doi:10.1038/nature10847

where there’s fire there’s smoke

Monday, December 31st, 2012
Wildfire, increasing with climate change [123], deposits increasing amounts of light-absorbing black carbon [soot] on the cryosphere [snow and ice], multiplying the existing heat-driven ice-reflectivity feedback [a.k.a. albedo feedback].

Sifting through data from NASA’s Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) revealed smoke clouds near, over, and even in contact with Greenland.

The discovery was reported widely 123456789 .

Myself and intern Nathaniel Henry find other similar cases in the CALIPSO data, most are less obvious because the smoke disperses into the atmosphere from its source. In the above case, the source fire was active in nearby Labrador for several days.

Stay tuned to meltfactor.org as this story evolves and as we attempt the first-of-a-kind crowdfunded Greenland expedition via http://darksnowproject.org/